Diffusion of Cosmic Rays

Diffusion of cosmic rays can be modeled in an ensemble averaged way using transport equations. In CRPropa this is done based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs) which are mathematically equivalent to the more familar transport equations.

The first notebooks give an overview how to set up a simulation using a user-defined diffusion coefficient.

Advection and Adiabatic Energy Changes

Advection in non-divergence-free velocity fields causes adiabatic energy changes, which can be modeled following the next examples.