Basic Concepts

Modular design

The basic concept of CRPropa 3 is having all aspects of cosmic ray propagation, such as photodisintegration or the maximum trajectory length, split up into independent simulation ‘’’Module’’’s. Their task is to modify a cosmic ray one after the other and in small steps. The propagation then consists of repeatedly looping a cosmic ray through a list of active modules (‘’’ModuleList’’’) until a module signals that the propagation is finished. The modules are independent in that they do not require each other and can basically be used in any combination.

The object that contains the initial and current state on the cosmic ray particle is called ‘’’Candidate’’’. It also contains information on the state in the previous simulation step, as well as the current redshift, the current and next (preliminary) step size, status flags (e.g. “Detected”) and a record of interactions that are projected to happen to the cosmic ray particle.

Parallelization/Multiprocessing

CPRopa 3 enables shared memory multiprocessing (using OpenMP), thus the distribution of workload among several computing units (“threads”), which share the same memory. Distributing the workload is trivial in cosmic ray propagation as there is no interaction between the cosmic rays. To propagate e.g. 20 cosmic rays with two threads, thread A could propagate the first 10, and thread B the second 10 simultaneously.

To make this work in practice, “thread-safety” has to be ensured. Objects and variables which are shared among the threads are not allowed to change during the parallel sections of the code. If they do, a change by thread A is likely to mess with the correct calculation in thread B. Most importantly, the simulation modules which are in the current parallelization layout shared among the threads cannot store information on the cosmic ray. Instead the information has be stored on the cosmic ray itself.

Program parts in which “thread-safety” cannot be ensured need to be put inside a “critical region”. If a thread reaches a critical region that is occupied by another thread, it waits for the thread to finish. Critical regions limit the benefit of parallelization and should not contain computationally expensive code. Examples for critical region are in the output modules or the call to the Fortran code SOPHIA for the photopion-production (although not checked, SOPHIA is very likely not thread-safe).

Other paradigms for parallelization are distributed memory multiprocessing with MPI, and GPGPU computing. These require a specific program layout and are currently not supported.

Unit system

In UHECR propagation many physical domains meet, each with their specific unit system. As any choice is arbitrary, the ‘’’SI-system’’’ is used internally throughout the program. Symbols are provided for the most important units (eV, kpc, Mpc, …). This enforces expressive code, e.g. MaximumTrajectoryLength(1000 * Mpc).

Particle ID

The PDG Monte Carlo numbering scheme (see http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/mcdata/mc_particle_id_contents.html) is used for compatibility with other Monte Carlo programs. Important elementary particle IDs are

  • 11 electron
  • 12 electron neutrino
  • 13 muon
  • 14 muon neutrino
  • 22 photon

Antiparticles have negative IDs, e.g. -11 for anti-electron.
Nuclear codes are given as ±10LZZZAAAI with

  • charge number Z,
  • mass number A,
  • ismoer level I (ground state I = 0, I > 0 excitation states) and
  • total number of strange quarks L

Reference Counting

For memory management CRPropa3 uses reference counting with the template class ‘’’Referenced’’’. This is necessary for compatibility with Python’s memory management.